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**Professor
of Applied Mathematics, FRS**

·
Professor
Emeritus, Mathematics Department,

University of Cape Town, Cape Town.

·
G C
McVittie Visiting Professor of Astronomy, Queen
Mary (London University)

**Degrees:** B.Sc.(Hons) (Cape Town), B.Com.(Hons) (Cape Town); Ph.D. (Cantab).

**Email:** George.ellis_@_uct.ac.za

**Google Scholar page: **here

**Past Positions:**

·
Lecturer,
DAMTP (Cambridge)

·
Professor
of Cosmic Physics, SISSA (Trieste)

·
Visiting
Professor: Texas University, University of Chicago, Hamburg University, Boston
University, University of Alberta, London University.

·
Visiting Fellow
Commoner, Trinity College, Cambridge from April to September, 2013

**Honours/Positions:**

·
National
Research Foundation (NRF) A-rating.

·
Fellow
and Past President of the Royal Society
of South Africa (RSSA).

·
Founder Member and past Member of Council of Academy of Science of South Africa (ASSAf).

·
Past
President of the International
Society for General Relativity and Gravitation.

·
Fellow
of the University of Cape
Town.

·
Honorary
Degrees: Haverford College, Natal University, London University (Queen Mary).

·
Herschel
Medal (RSSA), Achievement Award (Claude Harris Leon Foundation),

·
Gold Medal: South African Association for
the Advancement of Science (S2A3),

·
Gold Medal (S A Mathematical Society).

·
Member
of the drafting team of the DACST
Green Paper on Science and Technology after President Mandela’s election, which
lead to the White
Paper.

·
Past
Member of the InterAcademy
Council (Amsterdam), (2001-2005).

·
Joint
Editor in Chief of the International
Journal of General Relativity and Gravitation (2006 -2011). Please see here
a nice paper on reviewing.

·
Star of
South Africa Medal presented by President Nelson Mandela
(1999).

·
2004
Templeton Prize winner (presented by Prince Philip at Buckingham Palace).

·
Fellow
of the Third World Academy of Science
(TWAS), 2004.

·
NSTF 2004 award for an individual
contribution to Science and Technology over a lifetime.

·
Academy of Science
of South Africa Science-for-Society gold medal
(2005).

·
Order of
Mapungubwe (Silver) conferred by President Thabo Mbeki
(2006).

·
FRS
(Fellow of the Royal Society, London):
inducted July 2007.

·
Honorary
Fellow, Royal Society of South Africa
(2008)

·
Honorary Degree, University of Cape
Town (December, 2009) [citation]

· South African Institute of Physics De Beers Gold Medal (September 2010)

·
Civic honours awarded by the City of Cape Town (2011)

·
Awarded Fellowship of SA Institute of Physics (2012).

·
Awarded Fellowship of the
International Society on General Relativity and Gravitation at GR20 (2013). Citation . "For his
contributions to the theory of the large-scale structure of spacetime
and to relativistic cosmology, and for service to the Society."

·
Awarded an Honorary Degree from WITS, July 2016; to be awarded one
from the Sorbonne, October 2016

**Teaching and research interests:**

- General Relativity theory and its
application to the study of the large-scale structure of the universe
(cosmology).

- The history and philosophy of cosmology.

- Complex systems and emergence of
complexity.

- The human brain and behaviour.

- Science policy, developmental issues.

- Science and mathematics education.

- The relation of science to religion.

·
I
gave the Copernicus Centre lecture in Krakow in May 2012, see http://causal-universe.philosophyinscience.com/programme.php

·
I was a speaker at the ** Turing Centenary Conference** in Manchester in June 2012, see http://www.turing100.manchester.ac.uk/

·
With Huw Price (Bertrand Russell Professor of Philosphy, Cambridge) and others co-hosted a conference on
time in Cape Town December 12-14
(2012), focusing on the question: *Do We Need a Physics of
‘Passage’?*

·
I was a plenary
speaker at the 50^{th}
Texas Symposium meeting in Dallas, 2013

**Representative publications (books):**

·
*The
Large Scale Structure of Space Time* (with Stephen Hawking):

Cambridge University Press, 1973 and reprints [> ** 7000 citations**]; Russian and Chinese editions.

·
* **Low
Income Housing Policy in South Africa*, (with David Dewar):

Urban Problems Research Unit, UCT, 1979.

·
*Flat and Curved
Space Times,* (with Ruth Williams):

Oxford University Press, 1988, revised 2^{nd}
edition 2000.

Bowerdean/Marion Boyars,
1993.

·
*The
Renaissance of General Relativity and Cosmology*, (with A Lanza and J Miller): University
Press, Cambridge 1993; paperback, 2005.

·
*Science Research Policy in
South Africa*,

Royal Society of S
Africa, 1994.

·
*On
The Moral Nature of the universe: Cosmology, Theology, and Ethics*, (with Nancey Murphy): Fortress Press, 1996; Russian and Chinese
editions (review here).

·
* **Dynamical
systems in cosmology*, (with John Wainwright, Eds.):

Cambridge
University Press, 1996; paperback, 2005.

·
*Is
The Universe Open or Closed? The Density of Matter in the Universe*, (with Peter Coles): Cambridge
University Press, 1997.

·
*The
Far Future Universe, (Ed.):
*

Templeton Foundation Press, 2002.

·
*Downward
Causation and the Neurobiology of Free Will *** **(Ed.

·
*Substance
Use and Abuse in South Africa Insights from brain and behavioural sciences*
(Ed, with Kevin Thomas, Dan Stein, Ernesta Meintjes): UCT Press, 2012

·
*Foundations
of Space and Time: Reflections on Quantum Gravity* (Ed., with Jeff Murugan and Amanda Weltmann): Cambridge University Press, 2012.

·
*Relativistic
Cosmology** *(with Malcolm MacCallum and Roy Maartens):

Cambridge
University Press, 2012.

·
** From
matter to life: information and causality **SI
Walker, P Davies, G Ellis (Eds) (Cambridge)

**Representative publications (papers on
cosmology/relativity):**

·
“Cosmological
Models” (with Henk van Elst):, *Cargese**
lectures 1998*.

http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/9812046.

·
“Cosmic
microwave background anisotropies: Nonlinear dynamics” (with Roy Maartens and
Tim Gebbie):,* Phys.Rev. D59 (1999) 083506.* http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/9808163.

·
“On
Holography and Cosmology” (with Reza Tavakol): *Phys.Lett. B469 (1999) 37*.
http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/9908093
.

·
“83
years of general relativity and cosmology: progress and problems”.

*Class.
Quantum Grav. 16 (December 1999) A37-A75*.

·
“Cosmology
and Local Physics”*, Int.J.Mod.Phys. A17 (2002) 2667-2672*.

http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0102017
.

·
“`c' is the speed of
light, isn't it?” (with Jean Phillipe Uzan):

http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0305099
.

·
“The past attractor in inhomogeneous
cosmology” (with Claes Uggla, Henk van Elst, John Wainwright): http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0304002
.

·
“WMAP data and the curvature of space.” (with Jean
Phillipe Uzan and Uli Kirchner)*:*
http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0302597
.

·
“On the Stability of the Einstein Static Universe” (with
John D Barrow, Roy Maartens, and Christos Tsagas):, *Class.Quant.Grav.
20 (2003) L155-L164.*

http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0302094
.

·
“The Emergent Universe: inflationary cosmology with
no singularity” (with Roy Maartens): http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0211082
.

·
“The Emergent Universe: An
Explicit Construction” (with Jeff Murugan and Christos G. Tsagas)*:* http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0307112 .

·
“Multiverses and physical
cosmology*”* (with Uli Kirchner and Bill Stoeger)*:.*

http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0305292
.

·
“An emergent
universe from a loop” (with David Mulryne,
Reza Tavakol, James E. Lidsey). http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0502589.

·
“The universe seen at different scales” (with Thomas Buchert):

http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0506106.

·
“Physics in the real universe: time and spacetime”.

http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0605049
.

·
“Causality and
the speed of sound” (with Roy
Maartens and Malcolm MacCallum):. http://arxiv.org/abs/gr-qc/0703121.

·
“Time
drift of cosmological redshifts as a test of the Copernican principle” (with Jean-Philippe Uzan
and Chris Clarkson): http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/0801.0068.

·
“A
note on infinities in eternal inflation” (with Bill Stoeger).

General Relativity and Gravitation, Volume 41: 1475-1484 (2009)

·
“Dark matter and dark energy proposals:
maintaining cosmology as a true science?” Paper for CRAL-IPNL conference
"Dark Energy and Dark Matter", 2008.

·
“The
evolution of our local cosmic domain” (with Bill Stoeger).

Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society,
398: 1527-1536 (2009)

·
“Relativistic
cosmology”: Golden Oldie reprint of Varenna Lectures 1971:

General Relativity and Gravitation, Volume **41**: 581 (2009)

·
“Time
and Spacetime: The Crystallizing Block Universe”
(with T Rothman):

*Int. J. Theor. Phys., vol. 49, 988 (2010) http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/0912.0808.*

·
“A two-mass expanding exact space-time solution” (with Jean-Philippe Uzan and Julien Larena):
*GRG* **43**, 191 (2010) http://uk.arxiv.org/abs/1005.1809

·
“On
the Trace-Free Einstein Equations as a Viable Alternative to General Relativity” (with Jeff Murugan and Henk van Elst):

http://uk.arxiv.org/abs/1008.1196.

·
“Almost Birkhoff Theorem in General Relativity” (with
Rituparno Goswami) __http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/1101.4520__

·
“On Shear-Free perturbations of FLRW Universes”
(with Anne Marie Nzioki, Rituparno Goswami, and Peter Dunsby)
http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/1107.5410

·
“Does the
growth of structure affect our dynamical models of the universe? The averaging,
backreaction and fitting problems in cosmology” (with Chris Clarkson, Julien Larena, and Obinna Umeh): *Reports on Progress in Physics* http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/1109.2314

· “Mis) interpreting supernovae observations in a lumpy universe” (with Jean-Philippe Uzan, Roy Maartens, Chris Clarkson, Andreas Faltenbacher, and Obinna Umh) http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/1109.2484

· “Birkhoff Theorem and Matter” (with Rituparno Goswami) http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/1202.0240

· The Trace-Free Einstein Equations and inflation GRG 46, 1169

·
Blackness of the cosmic microwave
background spectrum as a probe of the distance-duality relation with R Poltis, JP Uzan, A Weltman

·
A gravitational entropy
proposal With Timothy Clifton, Reza Tavakol

· Discrete Newtonian cosmology (with Gary Gibbons)

·
Cosmic Matter Flux May Turn Hawking
Radiation Off with JT Firouzjaee,

grg
journal [arXiv:1408.0778]

**On philosophy of cosmology, and time:**

·
“Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology” http://arxiv.org/abs/astro-ph/0602280.

·
“Editorial note to
"Large number coincidences and the anthropic principle in cosmology" http://xxx.lanl.gov/abs/1105.2462

·
“On the
philosophy of cosmology” (2013) Studies in History and
Philosophy of Science Part B: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern
Physics text of Granada (2011) talk

·
“Space
time and the passage of time” for *Springer Handbook of Spacetime*

·
The arrow of
time and the nature of spacetime: Studies in History and Philosophy of Modern Physics 44, 242–262

·
The Evolving Block Universe and the
Meshing Together of Times

Ann New York Acad Sci [arXiv:1407.7243]

·
“Scientific
method: Defend the integrity of physics”, with Joe Silk__ __Nature. 2014 Dec 18;516(7531):321-3.

**Representative publications (papers on
education/developmental issues):**

·
A view on the school maths
syllabus. (CASME
talk, 1995).

·
The Development of
Quantitative Social Indicators. (Notes 2001).

·
South African
Developmental Issues.
SAIRR (Western Cape), 2001.

·
Science,
technology and Humanity (for STIAS New Humanism Project).

**Representative publications (papers on
complexity/emergence):**

·
Physics and the real
world [full length *Foundations of Physics* article
supporting shorter *Nature* version].

·
Top-Down Causation
by Information Control: From a Philosophical Problem to a Scientific Research
Program (with Gennaro Auletta and Luc
Jaeger): *Journal
of the Royal Society Interface* **5:**1159-1172
(2008).* *

·
On the nature of
causation in complex systems (extended version of RSSA Centenary
Transactions paper, 2008)*.*

· “Top down causation and emergence: some comments on mechanisms”

(talk at

·
“On the limits of quantum theory: contextuality and the classical/quantum cut” __http://lanl.arxiv.org/abs/1108.5261 __

·
“The arrow
of time, the nature of spacetime, and quantum measurement”

(Response to FQXI Meeting)

·
* *True complexity and its associated
ontology (Talk at John Wheeler birthday meeting)

·
Recognising Top-Down
Causation (FQXI essay 2012)

·
Necessity,
purpose, and chance: the role of randomness and indeterminism in nature from
complex macroscopic systems to relativistic cosmology (integrative
paper for CTNS meeting)

·
__Nature, computation and complexity__ with PM Binder. *Physica** Scripta* **91** (6), 064004

**Representative publications (papers on the
brain and language):**

·
__Neural Development: Affective and Immune System Influences__*.* (with Judith Toronchuk):
In *Consciousness and Emotion*: *Agency,
Conscious Choice, and Selective Perception* Ed R D. Ellis and N Newton (John
Benjamins, 2005), 81–119.

·
Disgust:
Sensory Affect or Primary Emotional System*?* (with Judith Toronchuk):*
**Cognition & Emotion*, **21** (2007), 1799 – 1818.

·
Affective
Neuronal Darwinism: The Nature of the Primary Emotional Systems. (with Judith Toronchuk).

·
Commentary
on “An Evolutionarily Informed Education Science” by David
C Geary*. Educational Psychologist* **43** (4), 206-213 (2008)*.*

·
Language
Infinities*.* (with
Bill Stoeger: unpublished).

·
Biology
and mechanisms related to the dawn of language*.* In proceedings of *Homo Symbolicus* meeting.

·
Comment on “Taking
emergence seriously: The centrality of circular causality for dynamic systems
approaches to development” by David Witherington (with Carole Bloch)

· Salience Affected Neural Networks (with Leendert Remmelzwaal and Jonathan Tapson)

·
The myth of a purely
rational life (Theology and Science 5:87-100, 2007)

For a beautiful description of how
reading and writing is really learnt by young children, here is Chloe’s story by
Carole Bloch.

**Web Notes:**

* ***1**:* *The Universe Around Us: An
Integrative View of Science and Cosmology.

**2**:
Course on General
relativity*.*

*Other activities:*

I am chairperson of Quaker Service (Cape), and
am on the board of the Association for
Educational Transformation (ASSET).
ELRU, Philani,
Nalibali, and The Little Hands Trust are other
inspiring local organisations (I was on the Boards of ELRU and Philani for many
years). I am an avid
fan and supporter of the Pro Cantu Youth
Choir. I am an amateur photographer on my mountain walks; the
photos below are from an exhibition I held in 1999. And here is our joint
lamentation about the destruction of shade trees in Cape Town (walking in the
shaded forest in Cape Town has been a privilege I have enjoyed for 50 years,
now a thing of the past: they have been destroyed by fynbos fundamentalists).

Finally, for those interested in my
views on science and religion, here is a paper
I wrote on the Quakers a long while ago, and here is
my Backhouse Lecture to the Australia Yearly Meeting of the Quakers; and here is a paper
on fundamentalism in science and religion. For much evidence of scientific
fundamentalism, see various very informative links here as well as the writings of Alistair McGrath.